THERE – Theory and Empiricism of Religious Evolution: Foundation of a Research Program

5. Communication-Theoretical Foundation of Systems Theory and the Theory of Evolution

For the scheme 1,2,3-4 in European semantic and social history, see Brandt (1991) as well as the contributions in Brandt (2014). According to Peirce’s semiotics, which I adhere to, number 4 connects to number 3 and it again unfolds into the three categories of firstness, secondness and thirdness. “The most fundamental fact about the number three is its generative potency” (Peirce 1994, CP 4.309). Number 4 may indeed close—in the sense of scheme 1,2,3-4 by Reinhard Brandt—, but semiosis itself is in principle non-completable. Luhmann’s triad of interaction, organization, and society (1975a) is also folded in by a fourth element and can be understood in accordance with the scheme 1,2,3-4: society “appears as a comprehensive unity (that includes all types of interactive and organizational sociality) and at the same time as one social system among others, distinguished in particular from interactions and organizations” (Tyrell 2015, 359–360).

This page is referenced by: