THERE – Theory and Empiricism of Religious Evolution: Foundation of a Research Program

5. Communication-Theoretical Foundation of Systems Theory and the Theory of Evolution

What Kurt Röttgers (2012, 16–17) writes about anthropologically based social philosophies applies for every scientific approach that intends to make ‘the human being’ its object: “Social philosophies that attempt to proceed from the ‘human’ perspective, get in trouble by doing so. They first need to clarify what this ‘human’ is. Is it a subject or object of a practical humanism, i. e. a unit of attribution, and who is then, and on what basis, entitled to apply such an attribution? The only remaining, but circular answer is: This is the human. Or is this the human which medical doctors or even bio-politicians are responsible for, i. e. finally the human who is an organism determined by a certain genetic pool? Or shall we understand what a human is by what philosophical anthropology invented 200 years ago, as Gehlen suggests, a creature of deficits or to express it with Plessner, an eccentric? Even assuming that the anthropological and humanistic presuppositions were clarified, and even the moral perspective, whether man is by its first or second nature good or evil or mixed like a chessboard, it still remains unclear how something social or even an entire society can be traced from such a constructed human (the constructed idea of man).”

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