THERE – Theory and Empiricism of Religious Evolution: Foundation of a Research Program

5. Communication-Theoretical Foundation of Systems Theory and the Theory of Evolution

However, Gerardus van der Leeuw (1986 [1933]) seems to know this when he deals with “the object of religion” in the first part and “the subject of religion” in the second part of his phenomenology before he turns towards the “object and subject in their reciprocal operation” in the third part. Whereas, according to Peirce, religion is neither subjective nor objective (Topa 2007, 335). Stefano Cochetti (1999, 244–245) argues in reference to the theory of sacrifice by Georges Bataille: “‘Transcendence’ and ‘immanence’ imply no hierarchy: a human being transcends a table as well as a table transcends a human being.” Cf. also Luhmann (2013a, 12.30): “Religion cannot be adequately understood according to the schemas of consciousness (subject/object, observer/object) because it is located on both sides of the distinction between self- and other-reference. […] Yet this is the source of religion’s problem, if only because religion can—and finally must—ask about the meaning of this subject/object distinction.”

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