THERE – Theory and Empiricism of Religious Evolution: Foundation of a Research Program

5. Evolutionary Foundation of Systems Theory (fn)

However, these distinctions, to the best of my knowledge, are reflected in religious self-description only much later, particularly—with regard to the European history of religions—during the Donatists’ controversy (first phase: 312–337 CE): “The ‘strength’ (potestas) of the sacrament comes from God, the bishops of the church perform the action (ministerium)” (Mühlenberg 2011, 427). The Council of Constance (November 5th, 1414 to April 22nd, 1418), opposed to John Wyclif and Jan Hus, reaffirmed the conviction that the administration of a sacrament is valid regardless of the moral disposition of the person administering.

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