THERE – Theory and Empiricism of Religious Evolution: Foundation of a Research Program

5. Evolutionary Foundation of Systems Theory (fn)

According to Tim Ingold (1986, 30), there are “two ways in which the theory of biological evolution can be applied to humanity and culture: by extension and by analogy.” Extension, in the presented approach, is out of question, because it does not consider the interruption of interdependence between the different evolutionary dimensions, but rather short-circuits them. For analogies between biotic and social evolution, cf. Burkhard Stephan (2005) as well as the respective comments, for instance, Antweiler (2005). However, in contrast to the approach presented here, Stephan claims that “all social subsystems and the macrosocial conditions are developed and shaped by humans” (Stephan 2005, 357).

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