THERE – Theory and Empiricism of Religious Evolution: Foundation of a Research Program

8. Conclusion

“Nucleotides consist of four nucleobases, two of which are complementary. Three pairs form a codon or triplet, which corresponds to a specific amino acid (comparable to a letter in a human language). Dozens to hundreds of codons (comparable words and sentences of the language) correspond to protein functions (protein building plans). The enzyme RNA polymerase is used for the transcription into messenger RNA (mRNA), i.e. the production of a working copy. In the ribosomes, the code is then translated via transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNS), i.e. the translation into protein structures (protein coding) whose amino acid sequence is clearly determined by the triplet sequence of the mRNA. A sequence of triplets that make up a protein code is a gene. ¶ For the triplets or codons there are now 64 possible combinations (= amino acids). However, only 20 combinations + three stop codons are used (protein coding genes are indicated by so-called promoters and a start codon). This means that several codons stand for the same amino acid and therefore have maximum redundancy. The genetic code has in information-theoretical, syntactic and semantic terms a demonstrably high degree of optimality, error tolerance and adaptability. The DNA shows an extremely high information density. It includes not only information on protein synthesis, but also a variety of regulatory sequences and ribozyme codes, overlapping genes, etc., with the spatial structure of DNA also being a ‘carrier of information’” (Natterer 2010, 92). Recently, science has questioned the invariance of the genome. The transmission of the genome to form an organism leads to eradications, duplications, and other mutations in different parts of the organism, according to Macosko and McCarroll (2013). This viewpoint shows the enormous flexibility of the genome, but also sheds new light on the development of diseases therev.

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