THERE – Theory and Empiricism of Religious Evolution: Foundation of a Research Program

System-Theoretical Foundation of the Theory of Evolution

In the terminology of Jewish ethics, for instance, there are terms such as חַטָּאָה, חַטָּ֣את (failure of reaching a goal and at the same time its atonement) as well as עֲבֵרָה (transgression); in Christian ethics, offences are attributed as sins (Greek: ἁμαρτία; Latin: peccatum), which are ritually atoned or forgiven; in Islamic ethics, the Arab terms ḫaṭaʾ, ḫaṭīaʾh, iṯm and ḏanb—each with different connotations and partially in view of the conceptual pair ḥarām/ḥalāl (permitted/forbidden, including the ‘grey area’ makrūh [frowned upon, undesired])—stand for religiously understood misconduct.

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